Erinevus lehekülje "Bhāvanā" redaktsioonide vahel

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Meele treenimiseks on Buddha andnud kaks põhilist meetodit: 1) meelerahu arendamine (paali k. ''samatha-bhāvanā'') ja 2) taipamise/mõistmisvõime arendamine (paali k. ''vipassanā-bhāvanā'').
 
==Budism==
[[Theravaada]] [[Budism|budismi]] tekstides [[Tipitaka]] on ''bhāvanā'' liitsõna, mis näitab inimese aja jooksul tehtud isiklikku tahtlikku pingutust, et saavutada arengut konkreetsel teemal. Näiteks on olemas järgmised alajaotused:
:* '''''[[citta]]-bhāvanā''''', saab tõlkida kui "meele areng"<ref name="kaya_citta">See, e.g., [[Digha Nikaya|DN]] 33.1.10(48), trans. by Walshe (1995), p. 486; and, [[Majjhima Nikaya|MN]] 36, trans. by Ñā{{IAST|ṇ}}amoli & Bodhi (2001), pp. 332-343.<br />Nii DN 33 kui ka MN 36 võrdsustavad ''citta-bhāvanā'' ''kāya-bhāvanāga''. DN 33 on öeldud, et on olemas kolm tüüpi arengut: keha (''kāya''), meele (''citta'') ja mõistuse (''paññā''). MN 36 lõppmärkustes mainib Bodhi (pp. 1228-29, nn. 382, 384) et MN-i [[atthakatha|kommentaarides]] , et keha areng viitab [[vipassana|teadmistele]] meele areng viitab [[Samadhi|''samādhile'']].</ref><ref>Vaata ka [[Anguttara Nikaya|AN]] 1.22 ja 1.24 (a/k/a, AN I,iii,1 and 3), trans. by [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an01/an01.021-040.than.html Thanissaro (2006);] and, AN 1.51-52 (a/k/a, AN I,vi,1-2), trans. by [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an01/an01.049.than.html Thanissaro (1995)], as well as trans. by Nyanaponika & Bodhi (1999), p. 36.</ref> või "teadvuse areng".
:* '''''kāya-bhāvanā''''', saab tõlkida kui "keha areng."<ref name="kaya_citta" />
:* '''''[[mettā]]-bhāvanā''''', saab tõlkida kui "kultiveerimine"<ref>See, e.g., [[Sutta Nipata|Sn]] 1.8, ''[[Metta Sutta]]'', trans. by [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/snp/snp.1.08.than.html Thanissaro (2004).] Ühendit ''metta-bhāvanā'' tegelikult selles suttas ei ole, kuid seal on kirjas, et tuleb "kultiveerida" (''bhāvaye'') oma ''metta''t.</ref> või "heatahtlikuse arendamine".<ref>See, e.g., [[Itivuttaka|Iti]]. 1.27, trans. by [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/iti/iti.1.024-027.irel.html#iti-027 Ireland (1997)], pp. 169-70.</ref>
:* '''''[[paññā]]-bhāvanā''''', saab tõlkida kui "mõistmise või tarkuse arendamine"<ref>Vaata [[Digha Nikaya|DN]] 33.1.10(48), trans. by Walshe (1995), p. 486, referenced in note above regarding ''citta-bhāvanā''.</ref> või "arusaamise arendamine".
:* '''''[[[[Samadhi|samādhi]]]]-bhāvanā''''', saab tõlkida kui "konsentratsiooni arendamine".<ref>See, e.g., [[Anguttara Nikaya|AN]] 4.41, trans. [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an04/an04.041.than.html Thanissaro (1997)] (cf. [[Template:SamadhiBhavana]]). In addition, see [[Majjhima Nikaya|MN]] 44, ''C{{IAST|ūḷ}}avedalla Sutta'', trans. by [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.044.than.html Thanissaro (1998a):]
:<nowiki>[</nowiki>[[Upasaka|Layperson]] Vis{{IAST|ā}}kha:] "Now what is concentration, lady, what qualities are its themes, what qualities are its requisites, and what is its development [''samādhibhāvanāti''] ?"
:<nowiki>[</nowiki>[[Bhikkhuni]] Dhammadinn{{IAST|ā}}:] "Singleness of mind is concentration, friend Visakha; the [[Satipatthana|four frames of reference]] are its themes; the [[four right exertions]] are its requisites; and any cultivation, development, & pursuit of these qualities is its development."</ref>
 
Tipitakas on lisaks kirjas ''[[samatha]]-[[vipassana]]'' arendamine (''bhāvanā'').<ref>See, e.g., in [[Majjhima Nikaya|MN]] 151, the Buddha states that a bhikkhu who has developed ''[[samatha]]-[[vipassana]]'' (or any of the seven sets of [[Bodhipakkhiya dhamma|Enlightenment-conducive qualities]]) "can abide happy and glad, training day and night in wholesome states" (trans., Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi, 2001, p. 1145). Additionally, [[Anguttara Nikaya|AN]] 4.170 identifies three ways in which an arahant develops ''samatha-vipassana'': ''samatha'' first; ''vipassana'' first; or both in tandem (Nyanaponika & Bodhi, 1999, p. 114; and, [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an04/an04.170.than.html Thanissaro, 1998b).] See also the [[Paracanonical texts (Theravada Buddhism)|paracanonical]] [[Nettipakarana|Nett]] 91 (Rhys Davids & Stede, 1921-25, p. 503, entry for "Bhāvanā," retrieved 9 Dec 2008 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.2:1:3558.pal{{Dead link|date=June 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}).</ref> Subsequently, [[Theravada]] teachers have made use of the following compounds:
:* '''''[[samatha]]-bhāvanā''''' tähendab rahulikkuse arendamist.<ref name="manual" />
:* '''''[[vipassanā]]-bhāvanā''''', tähendab arusaamise arendamist.<ref name="manual" />
 
Bhavanat kasutatakse tihtipeale ka kui mõistet, mis tähistab budistlikku meditatsiooni, siis näiteks metta-bhavana võib tõlkida kui 'armastuse ja hoolimise meditatsioon'. Kuid budismis on meditatsioon ka ''[[Dhyana]]'' (sanskriti ja paali keeles: ''jhāna''), kui [[Samadhi|''samādhi'']], kaheksas aste kaheksaosalise teel.
 
== Meelerahu arendamine ==
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