Erinevus lehekülje "Geenius" redaktsioonide vahel

Eemaldatud 238 baiti ,  1 aasta eest
P
pisitoimetamine
P (pisitoimetamine)
Märgised: tekstilink teise vikisse AWB
Intelligentsuse määratlemist alustasid [[Francis Galton]] (1822–1911) ja [[James McKeen Cattell]]. Nemad toetasid reageerimise aja ja sensoorse teravuse analüüsi kui "neurofüsioloogilise efektiivsuse" mõõtühikut ja sensoorse teravuse analüüsi kui [[intelligentsus]]e mõõtühikut.<ref name="qadgv" />
 
Galton on psühhomeetria rajaja. Ta uuris oma sugulase [[Charles Darwin]]i töid bioloogilise evolutsiooni kohta. Eeldades, et väljapaistvus on päritav, tegi Galton uurimuse Suurbritannia väljapaistvate inimeste perekondadest, avaldades selle 1869 pealkirja all "Hereditary Genius" ("Päritav geniaalsus").<ref name="R6Zbe" /> Galtoni ideed pärinesid kahelt 19. sajandi statistikateadlaselt: [[Carl Friedrich Gauss]] ja [[Adolphe Quetelet]]. Gauss avastas [[Normaaljaotus|normaaljaotusenormaaljaotus]]e (kellakujuline kurv): kui on ette antud suur hulk mõõtmisi sama muutuja puhul samadel tingimustel, siis nad varieeruvad juhuslikult alates kõige sagedasemast väärtusest,"keskmisest," kuni kahe kõige vähem esineva väärtuseni, maksimaalse erinevusega pikim ja madalaim. Quetelet avastas, et kellakujuline kurv rakendus sotsiaalsele statistikale, mida Prantsuse valitsus kogus suurel hulgal kohust ja sõjaväge läbivate inimeste kohta. Quetelet esialgne töö kriminoloogias viis ta järelduseni "mida suuremat numbrit indiviide jälgiti, seda enam eripärad olematuks muutusid..." See ideaalne vorm, kus eripärad olid kustutatud sai nimeks "keskmine inimene".<ref name="5OUwQ" />
 
Galton keskmise inimese definitsioon "täielikult normaalne skeem" oli inspireeritud Quetelet'st; see tähendab, kui keegi kombineerib iga mõõdetava isikuomaduse normaaljaotused, siis ta, teoorias, märkab sündroomi "keskmine inimene", kes on piiratud persoonidest, kes on erinevad. Vastupidiselt Quetelet'le, Galtoni keskmine inimene polnud statistiline, vaid ainult teoreetiline. Puudus meede ''mõõdetav tavaline keskmine'', oli ainult suur hulk väga spetsiifilisi keskmisi. Avastamaks üldine keskmine, Galton uuris hariduse statistikat ja leidis normaaljaotusi igasugustes testitulemustes; näiteks Sandhursti sisseastumiseksamite skoorides.
 
 
 
 
Galtoni "Hereditary Geniuses" kirjeldatud meetod oli lugeda ja hinnata väljapaistvate inimeste väljapaistvad sugulased. Ta leidis, et väljapaistvate sugulaste number oli suurem väljapaistva isiku lähedaste sugulaste hulgas. Seda tööd peetakse esimeseks historiomeetria näiteks, analüütiliseks uurimuseks inimajaloo progressist. Uurimus on vastuoluline ja seda on mitmetel põhjustel kritiseeritud. Galton eemaldus Gaussist otsustavalt. Normaaljaotus polnud juhuslik, järeldas ta. Vahed keskmise ja ülemise otsa vahel tulenesid mittejuhuslikul faktoril, "loomulikul võimekusel," mida ta defineeris kui "intellekti ja eelsoodumuse need omadused, mis julgustavad ja annavad inimestele võimed sooritamaks tegusid, mis viivad kõrge maineni ... loomus, mis iseenesest, juhitud päritud stiimulite poolt, hakkab tallama rada, mis viib väljapaistvusele."<ref name="CLXB3" /> Niisiis, näiline juhuslikkus skoorides oli tingitud selle loomuliku võime juhuslikust esinemisest elanikkonnas tervikuna.
 
=== IQ ja geniaalsus ===
[[Pilt:Rabindranath_Tagore_in_1909.jpg|thumbpisi|[[Rabindranath Tagore]] on laialt tuntud kui geenius ja entsüklopeediliste teadmistega isik]]
Galton oli pioneer väljapaistvate inimsaavutuste ja vaimsete võimete testide alal. Oma raamatus "Hereditary Genius", mille ta kirjutas enne IQ testide väljatöötamist, oletas ta, et pärilikud mõjud väljapaistvuse arenemiseks on tugevad ja et väljapaistvus on harvaesinev tavalises populatsioonis. Lewis Terman valis klassifikatsiooni märgise "'lähedane geniaalsusele või geniaalne" kõrgeimaks klassifikatsiooniks oma 1916. aasta Stanford-Binet testi versioonile.<ref name="Terman1916p79" /> Aastal 1926 alustas Terman California koolilastega, kes esitati oma õpetajate poolt IQ testimisele, tehtud pikaajalise uuringu avaldamist. Teos kandis pealkirja "Genetic Studies of Genius" ("Geniaalsuse geneetilised uuringud"). Uuringu tegemist jätkas ta kogu ülejäänud elu. Catherine M. Cox, Termani kolleeg, kirjutas raamatu, "The Early Mental Traits of 300 Geniuses",<ref name="Cox 1926" /> mis avaldati teise köitena raamatusarjas "The Genetic Studies of Genius", milles Cox analüüsib ajalooliste geeniuste biograafilist teavet.
Kuigi tema pandud ajalooliste isikute, kes kunagi ei teinud IQ teste, lapsepõlve IQ skoore on kritiseeritud metoodilistel alustel,<ref name="PintneronCox" /><ref name="Shurkin1992pp70–71" /><ref name="EysenckonCox" /> Coxi uuring andis põhjalikke teadmisi, mis peale IQ aitas kaasa geeniuseks saamisele.<ref name="Cox1926pp215–219" /> Aastaks 1937, pärast teist Stanford-Binet testi parandust, Terman enam ei kasutanud terminit "geenius" kui IQ klassifikatsiooni, samuti mitte teised IQ testid.<ref name="TermanMerrill1960p18" /><ref name="Kaufman2009p117" /> Aastal 1939 [[David Wechsler]] kommenteeris: "Me oleme pigem kõhklevad, nimetamaks isikut geeniuseks vaid intelligentsustesti põhjal."<ref name="Wechsler1939p45" />
 
== Filosoofia ==
[[Pilt:Leonardo_da_Vinci_-_presumed_self-portrait_-_WGA12798.jpg|thumbpisi|[[Leonardo da Vinci]] on laialt tuntud kui geenius ja entsüklopeediliste teadmistega isik]]
Mitmed filosoofid on oma filosoofiliste teooriate kontekstis pakkunud termineid, mis on geniaalsus ja mida see endas kannab.
[[Pilt:Croce-Mozart-Detail.jpg|thumbpisi|214x214px|[[Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart]], imelaps ja geniaalne muusik ]]
[[David Hume]]'i filosoofias: see, kuidas ühiskond tajub geeniust, on sarnane sellega, kuidas ühiskond tajub ignorante. Hume ütleb, et geeniuse omadustega isikut nähakse tihti kui ühiskonnast lahtiühendatut, isikuna, kes töötab muust maailmast eemaldunult. "Teisest küljest, pelk ignorant on põlatud; samuti ei ole midagi peetud neetud geeniuse kindlamaks märgiks ajastul ja rahvuses, kus teadused arenevad, kui olla täiesti vaba ülla meelelahutuse maigust. Kõige täiuslikum karakter arvatakse jäävat nende kahe ekstreemsuse vahele; säilitades võrdse võime ja isu raamatute, seltskonna ja äritegevuse vastu; säilitades vestluses seda arukust ja delikaatsust, mis sisaldub viisakates kirjades; ja omades äris seda ausust ja täpsust, mis on lihtsa filosoofia loomulik tulemus."<ref name="krQQ6" />
 
== Viited ==
{{viited|1=2|allikad=
<ref name="Cox 1926">{{Mall:Cite book|title=The Early Mental Traits of 300 Geniuses|last=Cox|first=Catherine M.|date=1926|publisher=Stanford University Press|location=Stanford (CA)|series=Genetic Studies of Genius Volume 2|lccn=25008797|isbn=0-8047-0010-9|oclc=248811346|laysummary=http://www.albany.edu/~scifraud/data/sci_fraud_1100.html|laydate=2.06.2013|ref=harv}}</ref>
<ref name="jdbRF">genius. (n.d.</ref>
<ref name="Terman1916p79">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFTerman1916|Terman 1916]], p.&nbsp;[https://books.google.com/books?id=26l9AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA79 79]</ref>
<ref name="Ip4xa">''Oxford Latin Dictionary'' (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982, 1985 reprinting), entries on ''genius'', p. 759, and ''gigno'', p. 764.</ref>
<ref name="PintneronCox">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFPintner1931|Pintner 1931]], pp.&nbsp;356–357 "From a study of these boyhood records, estimates of the probable I.Q.s of these men in childhood have been made.</ref>
<ref name="iDhfb">{{Mall:Cite journal|last=Shaw|first=Tamsin|year=2014|title=Wonder Boys?|url=http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2014/oct/09/wonder-boys-genius/|journal=[[The New York Review of Books]]|volume=61|number=15|accessdate=5.10.2014}}</ref>
<ref name="Shurkin1992pp70–71">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFShurkin1992|Shurkin 1992]], pp.&nbsp;70–71 "She, of course, was not measuring IQ; she was measuring the length of biographies in a book.</ref>
<ref name="pfjYj">Saint-Lambert, Jean-François de (ascribed).</ref>
<ref name="EysenckonCox">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFEysenck1998|Eysenck 1998]], p.&nbsp;126 "Cox found that the more was known about a person's youthful accomplishments, that is, what he had done ''before'' he was engaged in doing the things that made him known as a genius, the higher was his IQ.</ref>
<ref name="qadgv">{{Mall:Cite book|last=Fancher|first=Raymond E|title=Alfred Binet, General Psychologist|pages=67–84|series=Portraits of Pioneers in Psychology|volume=III|editor-first=Gregory A|editor-last=Kimble|editor2-first=Michael|editor2-last=Wertheimer|location=Hillsdale, NJ|year=1998|publisher=Lawrence Erlbaum Associates|isbn=978-1-55798-479-1|ref=harv}}</ref>
<ref name="Cox1926pp215–219">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFCox1926|Cox 1926]], pp.&nbsp;215–219, 218 (Chapter XIII: Conclusions) "3.</ref>
<ref name="R6Zbe">{{Mall:Cite book|title=Hereditary Genius|last=Galton|first=Francis|date=1869|publisher=MacMillan|location=London|url=http://galton.org/books/hereditary-genius/|accessdate=4.04.2014|laysummary=http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Galton/wozniak.htm|laydate=4.04.2014|ref=harv}}</ref>
<ref name="TermanMerrill1960p18">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFTermanMerrill1960|Terman &#x26; Merrill 1960]], p.&nbsp;18</ref>
<ref name="5OUwQ">{{Mall:Cite book|page=160|title=Against the gods|first=Peter L.|last=Bernstein|publisher=Wiley|year=1998|isbn=0-471-12104-5}}</ref>
<ref name="Kaufman2009p117">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFKaufman2009|Kaufman 2009]], p.&nbsp;117 "Terman (1916), as I indicated, used ''near genius or genius'' for IQs above 140, but mostly ''very superior'' has been the label of choice" (emphasis in original)</ref>
<ref name="CLXB3">Bernstein (1998), page 163.</ref>
<ref name="Wechsler1939p45">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFWechsler1939|Wechsler 1939]], p.&nbsp;45</ref>
<ref name="qKNMT">{{Mall:Cite journal|last1=Gillham|first1=Nicholas W.|title=Sir Francis Galton and the birth of eugenics|journal=Annual Review of Genetics|volume=35|issue=1|pages=83–101|date=2001|pmid=11700278|doi=10.1146/annurev.genet.35.102401.090055}}</ref>
<ref name="Eysenck1998pp127–128">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFEysenck1998|Eysenck 1998]], pp.&nbsp;127–128 "Terman, who originated those "Genetics Studies of Genius," as he called them, selected . . . children on the basis of their high IQs; the mean was 151 for both sexes.</ref>
<ref name="YwHkQ">{{Mall:Cite book|last=Rogers|first=Carl|title=On Becoming a Person|date=1995|publisher=Houghton Mifflin|isbn=0-395-75531-X|page=175}}</ref>
<ref name="Simonton1999p4">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFSimonton1999|Simonton 1999]], p.&nbsp;[https://books.google.com/books?id=LcB2kOXT-68C&pg=PA4 4] "When Terman first used the IQ test to select a sample of child geniuses, he unknowingly excluded a special child whose IQ did not make the grade.</ref>
<ref name="fSGcG">[http://www.vangoghgallery.com/misc/mental.html Van Gogh's Mental and Physical Health]</ref>
<ref name="Shurkin2006p13">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFShurkin2006|Shurkin 2006]], p.&nbsp;[https://books.google.com/books?id=cRb_qzEwWWAC&pg=PA13 13]; see also "[http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/beautiful-minds/200909/the-truth-about-the-termites The Truth About the 'Termites']" (Kaufman, S. B. 2009)</ref>
<ref name="sJHqh">[http://www.biography.com/people/virginia-woolf-9536773]</ref>
<ref name="Leslie2000">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFLeslie2000|Leslie 2000]], "[http://alumni.stanford.edu/get/page/magazine/article/?article_id=40678 We also know that two children who were tested but ''didn't'' make the cut – William Shockley and Luis Alvarez – went on to win the Nobel Prize in Physics.]</ref>
<ref name="qJGX0">[http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/jonathan-swift-3.php Jonathan Swift]</ref>
<ref name="ParkLubinskiBenbow2010">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFParkLubinskiBenbow2010|Park, Lubinski &#x26; Benbow 2010]], "[http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=recognizing-spatial-intel There were two young boys, Luis Alvarez and William Shockley, who were among the many who took Terman’s tests but missed the cutoff score.]</ref>
<ref name="U8xzr">[http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economic-sciences/laureates/1994/nash-bio.html John F. Nash Jr. – Biographical]</ref>
<ref name="Gleick2011p32">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFGleick2011|Gleick 2011]], p.&nbsp;[https://books.google.com/books?id=j42RD66g72oC&pg=PT32 32] "Still, his score on the school IQ test was a merely respectable 125."</ref>
<ref name="3NeuX">[http://www.biblio.com/ernest-hemingway/author/140 Ernest Hemingway]</ref>
<ref name="Robinson2011p47">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFRobinson2011|Robinson 2011]], p.&nbsp;[https://books.google.com/books?id=UFoAiCR58YcC&pg=PA47 47] "After all, the American physicist Richard Feynman is generally considered an almost archetypal late 20th-century genius, not just in the United States but wherever physics is studied.</ref>
<ref name="fkQWM">''Efroimson, V. P.'' The Genetics of Genius. 2002</ref>
<ref name="Jensen1998p577">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFJensen1998|Jensen 1998]], p.&nbsp;577 "''Creativity'' and ''genius'' are unrelated to ''g'' except that a person's level of ''g'' acts as a threshold variable below which socially significant forms of creativity are highly improbable.</ref>
<ref name="Eysenck1998p127a">[[:en:Genius#CITEREFEysenck1998|Eysenck 1998]], p.&nbsp;127 "What is obvious is that geniuses have a high degree of intelligence, but not outrageously high—therehigh–there are many accounts of people in the population with IQs as high who have not achieved anything like the status of genius.</ref>
<ref name="Pickover1998p224">Cf. [[:en:Genius#CITEREFPickover1998|Pickover 1998]], p.&nbsp;[https://books.google.com/books?id=P0CSxB2aHMcC&pg=PT243 224] (quoting Syed Jan Abas) "High IQ is not genius.</ref>
<ref name="krQQ6">{{Mall:Cite web|last=Hume|first=David|title=An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. "Of the different Species of Philosophy"|url=http://www.bartleby.com/37/3/|publisher=NEW YORK: BARTLEBY.COM, 2001|accessdate=2.09.2012|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/6ANiOVq0G|archivedate=2.09.2012}}</ref>
<ref name="jdbRF">genius. (n.d.</ref>
<ref name="Ip4xa">''Oxford Latin Dictionary'' (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982, 1985 reprinting), entries on ''genius'', p. 759, and ''gigno'', p. 764.</ref>
<ref name="iDhfb">{{Mall:Cite journal|last=Shaw|first=Tamsin|year=2014|title=Wonder Boys?|url=http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2014/oct/09/wonder-boys-genius/|journal=[[The New York Review of Books]]|volume=61|number=15|accessdate=5.10.2014}}</ref>
<ref name="pfjYj">Saint-Lambert, Jean-François de (ascribed).</ref>
<ref name="qadgv">{{Mall:Cite book|last=Fancher|first=Raymond E|title=Alfred Binet, General Psychologist|pages=67–84|series=Portraits of Pioneers in Psychology|volume=III|editor-first=Gregory A|editor-last=Kimble|editor2-first=Michael|editor2-last=Wertheimer|location=Hillsdale, NJ|year=1998|publisher=Lawrence Erlbaum Associates|isbn=978-1-55798-479-1|ref=harv}}</ref>
<ref name="R6Zbe">{{Mall:Cite book|title=Hereditary Genius|last=Galton|first=Francis|date=1869|publisher=MacMillan|location=London|url=http://galton.org/books/hereditary-genius/|accessdate=4.04.2014|laysummary=http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Galton/wozniak.htm|laydate=4.04.2014|ref=harv}}</ref>
<ref name="5OUwQ">{{Mall:Cite book|page=160|title=Against the gods|first=Peter L.|last=Bernstein|publisher=Wiley|year=1998|isbn=0-471-12104-5}}</ref>
<ref name="CLXB3">Bernstein (1998), page 163.</ref>
<ref name="qKNMT">{{Mall:Cite journal|last1=Gillham|first1=Nicholas W.|title=Sir Francis Galton and the birth of eugenics|journal=Annual Review of Genetics|volume=35|issue=1|pages=83–101|date=2001|pmid=11700278|doi=10.1146/annurev.genet.35.102401.090055}}</ref>
<ref name="YwHkQ">{{Mall:Cite book|last=Rogers|first=Carl|title=On Becoming a Person|date=1995|publisher=Houghton Mifflin|isbn=0-395-75531-X|page=175}}</ref>
<ref name="fSGcG">[http://www.vangoghgallery.com/misc/mental.html Van Gogh's Mental and Physical Health]</ref>
<ref name="sJHqh">[http://www.biography.com/people/virginia-woolf-9536773]</ref>
<ref name="qJGX0">[http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/jonathan-swift-3.php Jonathan Swift]</ref>
<ref name="U8xzr">[http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economic-sciences/laureates/1994/nash-bio.html John F. Nash Jr. – Biographical]</ref>
<ref name="3NeuX">[http://www.biblio.com/ernest-hemingway/author/140 Ernest Hemingway]</ref>
<ref name="fkQWM">''Efroimson, V. P.'' The Genetics of Genius. 2002</ref>
<ref name="krQQ6">{{Mall:Cite web|last=Hume|first=David|title=An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. — "Of the different Species of Philosophy"|url=http://www.bartleby.com/37/3/|publisher=NEW YORK: BARTLEBY.COM, 2001|accessdate=2.09.2012|archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/6ANiOVq0G|archivedate=2.09.2012}}</ref>
<ref name="D5axs">Howard Caygill, Kant Dictionary ([[:en:Special:BookSources/0631175350|ISBN 0-631-17535-0]]).</ref>
<ref name="CqXN1">{{Mall:Cite book|last1=Kant|first1=Immanuel|title=Kritik der Urteilskraft|trans_title=The Critique of Judgment|year=1790|pages=§46–§49|quote=e.g. §46: "Genius is a talent for producing something for which no determinate rule can be given, not a predisposition consisting of a skill for something that can be learned by following some rule or other." (trans. W.S. Pluhar)}}</ref>
<ref name="LthRQ">(Page 91, The Conquest of Happiness, [[:en:Special:BookSources/0415378478|ISBN 0-415-37847-8]])</ref>
}}
 
== Bibliograafia ==
* {{Mall:Cite book|title=The Early Mental Traits of 300 Geniuses|last=Cox|first=Catherine M.|date=1926|publisher=Stanford University Press|location=Stanford (CA)|series=Genetic Studies of Genius Volume 2|lccn=25008797|isbn=0-8047-0010-9|oclc=248811346|laysummary=http://www.albany.edu/~scifraud/data/sci_fraud_1100.html|laydate=2.06.2013|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|last=Eysenck|first=Hans|authorlink=Hans Eysenck|title=Genius: The Natural History of Creativity|series=Problems in the Behavioural Sciences No. 12|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-5-2148508-1|year=1995|laysummary=http://www.davidsongifted.org/db/Resources_id_14512.aspx|laydate=31.05.2013|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|last=Eysenck|first=Hans|title=Intelligence: A New Look|location=New Brunswick (NJ)|publisher=[[Transaction Publishers]]|isbn=978-0-7658-0707-6|year=1998|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|last=Gleick|first=James|authorlink=James Gleick|title=Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman|publisher=Open Road Media|year=2011|edition=ebook|isbn=9781453210437|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|author=Howe, Michael J. A.|authorlink=Michael Howe (psychologist)|title=Genius Explained|location=Cambridge|publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]]|isbn=978-052100849-5|year=1999|page=|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|title=The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability|last=Jensen|first=Arthur R.|authorlink=Arthur Jensen|year=1998|publisher=Praeger|location=Westport (CT)|isbn=978-0-275-96103-9|issn=1063-2158|series=Human Evolution, Behavior, and Intelligence|laysummary=http://www.cogsci.ecs.soton.ac.uk/cgi/psyc/newpsy?10.059|laydate=18.07.2010|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|title=IQ Testing 101|last=Kaufman|first=Alan S.|authorlink=Alan S. Kaufman|year=2009|publisher=Springer Publishing|location=New York|isbn=978-0-8261-0629-2|pages=151–153|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite journal|title=The Vexing Legacy of Lewis Terman|last=Leslie|first=Mitchell|date=2000|journal=Stanford Magazine|url=http://alumni.stanford.edu/get/page/magazine/article/?article_id=40678|accessdate=5.06.2013|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite journal|title=Recognizing Spatial Intelligence|last1=Park|first1=Gregory|last2=Lubinski|first2=David|author2link=David Lubinski|last3=Benbow|first3=Camilla P.|author3link=Camilla Benbow|date=2.11.2010|journal=Scientific American|url=http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=recognizing-spatial-intel|accessdate=5.06.2013|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|last=Pickover|first=Clifford A.|authorlink=Clifford A. Pickover|title=Strange Brains and Genius: The Secret Lives of Eccentric Scientists and Madmen|publisher=Plenum Publishing Corporation|year=1998|isbn=978-0688168940|laysummary=http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/pickover/strange.htm|laydate=15.07.2013|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|title=Intelligence Testing: Methods and Results|last=Pintner|first=Rudolph|year=1931|publisher=Henry Holt|location=New York|url=https://archive.org/details/intelligencetest00rudo|accessdate=14.07.2013|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|title=Genius: A Very Short Introduction|last=Robinson|first=Andrew|year=2011|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=Oxford|isbn=978-0-19-959440-5|page=|pages=|laysummary=http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/punctuated-equilibrium/2011/mar/03/2|laydate=22.05.2013|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|title=Terman's Kids: The Groundbreaking Study of How the Gifted Grow Up|last=Shurkin|first=Joel|year=1992|publisher=Little, Brown|location=Boston (MA)|isbn=978-0316788908|laysummary=http://articles.latimes.com/1992-05-31/books/bk-1247_1_lewis-terman/2|laydate=28.06.2010|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|title=Broken Genius: The Rise and Fall of William Shockley, Creator of the Electronic Age|last=Shurkin|first=Joel|authorlink=|year=2006|publisher=Macmillan|location=London|isbn=978-1-4039-8815-7|laysummary=http://www.popularscience.co.uk/reviews/rev291.htm|laydate=2.06.2013|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|title=Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity|last=Simonton|first=Dean Keith|authorlink=|year=1999|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=Oxford|isbn=978-0-19-512879-6|laysummary=http://www.jstor.org/pss/3080746|laydate=14.08.2010|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|title=The Measurement of Intelligence: An Explanation of and a Complete Guide to the Use of the Stanford Revision and Extension of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale|last=Terman|first=Lewis M.|authorlink=Lewis Terman|others=[[Ellwood P. Cubberley]] (Editor's Introduction)|year=1916|publisher=Houghton Mifflin|location=Boston|series=Riverside Textbooks in Education|url=http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/20662|accessdate=26.06.2010|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|title=Measuring Intelligence: A Guide to the Administration of the New Revised Stanford-Binet Tests of Intelligence|last1=Terman|first1=Lewis M.|last2=Merrill|first2=Maude|authorlink=Lewis Terman|year=1937|publisher=Houghton Mifflin|location=Boston|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|title=Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Manual for the Third Revision Form L-M with Revised IQ Tables by Samuel R. Pinneau|last1=Terman|first1=Lewis Madison|last2=Merrill|first2=Maude A.|authorlink1=Lewis Terman|year=1960|publisher=Houghton Mifflin|location=Boston (MA)|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite book|title=The Measurement of Adult Intelligence|last=Wechsler|first=David|authorlink=David Wechsler|year=1939|edition=first|publisher=Williams & Witkins|location=Baltimore (MD)|isbn=978-1-59147-606-1|laysummary=http://www.apa.org/pubs/books/4320121.aspx|laydate=5.06.2013|ref=harv}}
 
== Lisalugemist ==
 
=== Ülevaade artiklitest ===
* {{Mall:Cite journal|title=The Wrong Way to Treat Child Geniuses|last=Ellenberg|first=Jordan|authorlink=Jordan Ellenberg|url=http://online.wsj.com/articles/the-wrong-way-to-treat-child-geniuses-1401484790|accessdate=1.06.2014|date=30.05.2014|journal=Wall Street Journal|ref=harv}}
* {{Mall:Cite journal|author=Feldman, David|title=A Follow-up of Subjects Scoring above 180 IQ in Terman's Genetic Studies of Genius|journal=Exceptional Children|volume=50|issue=6|pages=518–523|year=1984|url=http://www.davidsongifted.org/db/Articles_id_10192.aspx|accessdate=8.07.2010|quote=|ref=harv}}
 
=== Entsüklopeediast ===
75 877

muudatust