AllanPH

Registreerunud: 7. juuli 2014
Lisatud 12 496 baiti ,  3 aasta eest
Projekt: "Eestikeelse neuroanatoomia mõisted"
P
(Projekt: "Eestikeelse neuroanatoomia mõisted")
*Spinaalganglion ja seljaaju: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spinaalganglion.jpg (modifitseeritud)
*Seljaaju: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Seljaaju_segmendi_ristl%C3%B5ige.png
 
== '''Projekt: "Eestikeelne neuroanatoomia terminoloogia"''' ==
Käesoleva projekti eesmärgiks on koondada eestikeelsed neuroanatoomia mõisted. Kui teil on Tartu Ülikooli neuroanatoomia materjale, kus on ajalooliselt kasutusel olnud eestikeelsed mõisted, siis oleksin väga tänulik, kui saaksite alumisse nimistusse eestikeelsed vasted lisada (eestikeelne mõiste peale sidekriipsu inglisekeelse termini järel). Kasutan all inglisekeelset terminoloogiat kuivõrd sellest lähtutakse igapäevases teaduskirjanduses. Kui olemasolev eestikeelne terminoloogia ammendub siis loodetavasti saab siin ka uut eestikeelset oskussõnavara konsolideerida. Projekt algus on 10. märts 2018. Tänud kõikidele kaastöölistele!
 
Allan-Hermann
 
=== Myelencephalon - Piklikaju ===
* Medulla oblongata
** Medullary pyramids
** Olivary body -
*** Inferior olivary nucleus
** Rostral ventrolateral medulla
** Caudal ventrolateral medulla
** Solitary nucleus
** Respiratory center-Respiratory groups
*** Dorsal respiratory group
*** Ventral respiratory group or Apneustic centre
**** Pre-Bötzinger complex
**** Botzinger complex
**** Retrotrapezoid nucleus
**** Nucleus retrofacialis
**** Nucleus retroambiguus
**** Nucleus para-ambiguus
** Paramedian reticular nucleus
** Gigantocellular reticular nucleus
** Parafacial zone
** Cuneate nucleus
** Gracile nucleus
** Perihypoglossal nuclei
*** Intercalated nucleus
*** Prepositus nucleus
*** Sublingual nucleus
** Area postrema
** Medullary cranial nerve nuclei
*** Inferior salivatory nucleus
*** Nucleus ambiguus
*** Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve
*** Hypoglossal nucleus
 
=== Metencephalon - ===
* Pons
** Pontine nuclei
** Pontine cranial nerve nuclei
*** ''chief'' or ''pontine'' nucleus of the trigeminal nerve sensory nucleus (V)
*** Motor nucleus for the trigeminal nerve (V)
*** Abducens nucleus (VI)
*** Facial nerve nucleus (VII)
*** vestibulocochlear nuclei (vestibular nuclei and cochlear nuclei) (VIII)
*** Superior salivatory nucleus
** Pontine tegmentum
*** Pontine micturition center (Barrington's nucleus)
*** Locus coeruleus
*** Pedunculopontine nucleus
*** Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus
*** Tegmental pontine reticular nucleus
** Parabrachial area
*** Medial parabrachial nucleus
*** Lateral parabrachial nucleus
*** Subparabrachial nucleus (Kölliker-Fuse nucleus)
**** Pontine respiratory group
** Superior olivary complex
*** Medial superior olive
*** Lateral superior olive
*** Medial nucleus of the trapezoid body
** Paramedian pontine reticular formation
** Parvocellular reticular nucleus
** Caudal pontine reticular nucleus
** Cerebellar peduncles
*** Superior cerebellar peduncle
*** Middle cerebellar peduncle
*** Inferior cerebellar peduncle
* Fourth ventricle
* Cerebellum
** Cerebellar vermis
** Cerebellar hemispheres
*** Anterior lobe
*** Posterior lobe
*** Flocculonodular lobe
** Cerebellar nuclei
*** Fastigial nucleus
*** Interposed nucleus
**** Globose nucleus
**** Emboliform nucleus
*** Dentate nucleus
 
=== Midbrain (mesencephalon) - keskaju ===
* Tectum
** Corpora quadrigemina
*** inferior colliculi
*** superior colliculi
* Pretectum
* Tegmentum
** Periaqueductal gray
** Rostral interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus
** Midbrain reticular formation
** Dorsal raphe nucleus
** Red nucleus
** Ventral tegmental area
*** Parabrachial pigmented nucleus
*** Paranigral nucleus
*** Rostromedial tegmental nucleus
** Caudal linear nucleus
** Rostral linear nucleus of the raphe
** Interfascicular nucleus
** Substantia nigra
*** Pars compacta
*** Pars reticulata
** Interpeduncular nucleus
* Cerebral peduncle
** Crus cerebri
* Mesencephalic cranial nerve nuclei
** Oculomotor nucleus (III)
** Edinger-Westphal nucleus
** Trochlear nucleus (IV)
* Mesencephalic duct (cerebral aqueduct, aqueduct of Sylvius)
 
=== Forebrain (prosencephalon) - ===
 
=== Diencephalon - Vaheaju ===
 
==== Epithalamus[edit] ====
* Pineal body
* Habenular nuclei
* Stria medullaris
* Taenia thalami
 
==== Third ventricle - ====
* Subcommissural organ
 
==== Thalamus - ====
See also: List of thalamic nuclei
* Anterior nuclear group
** Anteroventral nucleus (<abbr>a.k.a.</abbr> ventral anterior nucleus)
** Anterodorsal nucleus
** Anteromedial nucleus
* Medial nuclear group
** Medial dorsal nucleus
** Midline nuclear group
** Paratenial nucleus
** Reuniens nucleus
** Rhomboidal nucleus
** Intralaminar nuclear group
** Centromedial nucleus
** Parafascicular nucleus
** Paracentral nucleus
** Central lateral nucleus
** Central medial nucleus
* Lateral nuclear group
** Lateral dorsal nucleus
** Lateral posterior nucleus
** Pulvinar
* Ventral nuclear group
** Ventral anterior nucleus
** Ventral lateral nucleus
** Ventral posterior nucleus
*** Ventral posterior lateral nucleus
*** Ventral posterior medial nucleus
* Metathalamus
** Medial geniculate body
** Lateral geniculate body
* Thalamic reticular nucleus
 
==== Hypothalamus ''(limbic system) - hüpotaalamus'' ====
* Anterior
** Medial area
*** Parts of preoptic area
**** Medial preoptic nucleus
***** INAH 1
***** INAH 2
***** INAH 3
***** INAH 4
*** Suprachiasmatic nucleus
*** Paraventricular nucleus
*** Supraoptic nucleus (mainly)
*** Anterior hypothalamic nucleus
** Lateral area
*** Parts of preoptic area
**** Lateral preoptic nucleus
*** Anterior part of Lateral nucleus
*** Part of supraoptic nucleus
** Other nuclei of preoptic area
*** median preoptic nucleus
*** periventricular preoptic nucleus
* Tuberal
** Medial area
*** Dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus
*** Ventromedial nucleus
*** Arcuate nucleus
** Lateral area
*** Tuberal part of Lateral nucleus
*** Lateral tuberal nuclei
* Posterior
** Medial area
*** Mammillary nuclei (part of mammillary bodies)
*** Posterior nucleus
** Lateral area
*** Posterior part of Lateral nucleus
* Optic chiasm
* Subfornical organ
* Periventricular nucleus
* Pituitary stalk
* Tuber cinereum
** Tuberal nucleus
** Tuberomammillary nucleus
* Tuberal region
* Mammillary bodies
* Mammillary nucleus
 
==== Subthalamus ====
* Subthalamic nucleus
* Zona incerta
 
==== Pituitary gland ''-'' ====
* neurohypophysis
* Pars intermedia (Intermediate Lobe)
* adenohypophysis
 
=== Telencephalon - ===
 
==== White matter[edit] ====
* Centrum semiovale
* Corona radiata
* Internal capsule
* External capsule
* Extreme capsule
 
==== Subcortical[edit] ====
* Hippocampus (Medial Temporal Lobe)
** Dentate gyrus
** Cornu ammonis (CA fields)
*** Cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1)
*** Cornu ammonis area 2 (CA2)
*** Cornu ammonis area 3 (CA3)
*** Cornu ammonis area 4 (CA4)
* Amygdala ''(limbic system)'' ''(limbic lobe)''
** Central nucleus ''(autonomic nervous system)''
** Medial nucleus ''(accessory olfactory system)''
** Cortical and basomedial nuclei ''(main olfactory system)''
** Lateral and basolateral nuclei ''(frontotemporal cortical system)''
* Extended amygdala
** Stria terminalis
*** Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis
* Claustrum
* Basal ganglia
** Striatum
*** Dorsal striatum (a.k.a. neostriatum)
**** Putamen
**** Caudate nucleus
*** Ventral striatum
**** Nucleus accumbens
**** Olfactory tubercle
** Globus pallidus (forms nucleus lentiformis with putamen)
** Subthalamic nucleus
* Basal forebrain
** Anterior perforated substance
** Substantia innominata
** Nucleus basalis
** Diagonal band of Broca
** Septal nuclei
*** Medial septal nuclei
** Lamina terminalis
*** Vascular organ of lamina terminalis
 
==== Rhinencephalon ''(paleopallium)''[edit] ====
* Olfactory bulb
* Olfactory tract
* Anterior olfactory nucleus
* Piriform cortex
* Anterior commissure
* Uncus
* Periamygdaloid cortex
 
==== Cerebral cortex ''(neopallium)''[edit] ====
* Frontal lobe
** Cortex
*** Primary motor cortex (Precentral gyrus, M1)
*** Supplementary motor cortex
*** Premotor cortex
*** Prefrontal cortex
**** Orbitofrontal cortex
**** Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
** Gyri
*** Superior frontal gyrus
*** Middle frontal gyrus
*** Inferior frontal gyrus
** Brodmann areas: 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 24, 25, 32, 33, 44, 45, 46, 47
* Parietal lobe
** Cortex
*** Primary somatosensory cortex (S1)
*** Secondary somatosensory cortex (S2)
*** Posterior parietal cortex
** Gyri
*** Postcentral gyrus ''(Primary somesthetic area)''
** Other
*** Precuneus
** Brodmann areas 1, 2, 3 ''(Primary somesthetic area)''; 5, 7, 23, 26, 29, 31, 39, 40
* Occipital lobe
** Cortex
*** Primary visual cortex (V1)
*** V2
*** V3
*** V4
*** V5/MT
** Gyri
*** Lateral occipital gyrus
** Other
*** Cuneus
** Brodmann areas 17 ''(V1, primary visual cortex); 18, 19''
* Temporal lobe
** Cortex
*** Primary auditory cortex (A1)
*** secondary auditory cortex (A2)
*** Inferior temporal cortex
*** Posterior inferior temporal cortex
** Gyri
*** Superior temporal gyrus
*** Middle temporal gyrus
*** Inferior temporal gyrus
*** Entorhinal Cortex
*** Perirhinal Cortex
*** Parahippocampal gyrus
*** Fusiform gyrus
** Brodmann areas: 20, 21, 22, 27, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 41, 42
** Other
*** Medial superior temporal area (MST)
* Insular cortex
* Cingulate cortex
** Anterior cingulate
** Posterior cingulate
** Retrosplenial cortex
** Indusium griseum
** Subgenual area 25
** Brodmann areas 23, 24; 26, 29, 30 ''(retrosplenial areas)''; 31, 32
 
=== Neural pathways ===
* Superior longitudinal fasciculus
** Arcuate fasciculus
* Uncinate fasciculus
* Perforant pathway
* Thalamocortical radiations
* Corpus callosum
* Anterior commissure
* Amygdalofugal pathway
* Interthalamic adhesion
* Posterior commissure
* Habenular commissure
* Fornix
* Mammillotegmental fasciculus
* Cerebral peduncle
* Medial forebrain bundle
* Medial longitudinal fasciculus
* Myoclonic triangle
* Major dopaminergic pathways ''dopamine system'' from dopaminergic cell groups
** Mesocortical pathway
** Mesolimbic pathway
** Nigrostriatal pathway
** Tuberoinfundibular pathway
* Serotonin Pathways ''serotonin system''
** Raphe Nuclei
* Norepinephrine Pathways
** Locus coeruleus and other noradrenergic cell groups
* Epinephrine pathways from adrenergic cell groups
* Glutamate and acetylcholine pathways from mesopontine nuclei
 
=== Motor systems / Descending fibers ===
* Extrapyramidal system
* Pyramidal tract
** Corticospinal tract or Cerebrospinal fibers
*** Lateral corticospinal tract
*** Anterior corticospinal tract
** Corticopontine fibers
*** Frontopontine fibers
*** Temporopontine fibers
** Corticobulbar tract
* Corticomesencephalic tract
* Tectospinal tract
* Interstitiospinal tract
* Rubrospinal tract
* Rubro-olivary tract
* Olivocerebellar tract
* Olivospinal tract
* Vestibulospinal tract
** Lateral vestibulospinal tract
** Medial vestibulospinal tract
* Reticulospinal tract
* Lateral raphespinal tract
* Alpha system
* Gamma system
 
=== Somatosensory system ===
* Posterior column–medial lemniscus pathway
** Gracile fasciculus
** Cuneate fasciculus
** Medial lemniscus
* Spinothalamic tract
** Lateral spinothalamic tract
** Anterior spinothalamic tract
** Spinomesencephalic tract
* Spinocerebellar tract
* Spino-olivary tract
* Spinoreticular tract
 
=== Visual system[edit] ===
* Optic tract
* Optic radiation
* Retinohypothalamic tract
 
=== Auditory system ===
* Trapezoid body
* Lateral lemniscus
 
=== Nerves ===
* Brain stem
** Cranial nerves
*** Terminal (0)
*** Olfactory (I)
*** Optic (II)
*** Oculomotor (III)
*** Trochlear (IV)
*** Trigeminal (V)
*** Abducens (VI)
*** Facial (VII)
*** Vestibulocochlear (VIII)
*** Glossopharyngeal (IX)
*** Vagus (X)
*** Accessory (XI)
*** Hypoglossal (XII)
 
=== Neuro endocrine systems ===
* Hypothalamic-pituitary hormones
** HPA axis
** HPG axis
** HPT axis
** GHRH - GH
* Hypothalamic–neurohypophyseal system
 
=== Neuro vascular systems ===
* Middle cerebral artery
* Posterior cerebral artery
* Anterior cerebral artery
* Vertebral artery
* Basilar artery
* Circle of Willis (arterial system)
* Blood–brain barrier
* Glymphatic system
* Venous systems
* Circumventricular organs
 
=== Dural meningeal system ===
* Brain-cerebrospinal fluid barrier
* Meningeal coverings
** Dura mater
** Arachnoid mater
** Pia mater
* Epidural space
* Subdural space
* Subarachnoid space
** Arachnoid septum
** Superior cistern
** Cistern of lamina terminalis
** Chiasmatic cistern
** Interpeduncular cistern
** Pontine cistern
** Cisterna magna
** Spinal subarachnoid space
* Ventricular system
** Cerebrospinal fluid
**** Third ventricle
**** Fourth ventricle
**** Lateral ventricles
***** Angular bundle
***** Anterior horn
***** Body of lateral ventricle
***** Inferior horn
***** Posterior horn
***** Subventricular zone
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