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<nowiki>*</nowiki>Biheivioristlik programm (1899). 1894 Lloyd Morgan esitas oma kaanoni. Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) lõi oma tropismide teooria.
 
''Quite early, other Germans came to Loeb’s support, among whom the best known were Th.Baer, A.Bethe and J. von Uexküll. In 1899 these three men published a joint paper in which they proposed to discard all psychological terms, like sensation, memory, and learning, and substitute objective terms: reception for sensation, reflex for fixed movement, antiklise for modifiable movement, and resonance for memory or any dependence of behavior on past stimulation. Nor was it only the protozoa that seemed able to spare consciousness. The stereotyped behavior of the social insects, of the ants and bees, suggested that they might be robots'' (Boring, 1959, p. 625).''
''Quite early, other Germans came to Loeb’s support, among whom the best known<br>
were Th.Baer, A.Bethe and J. von Uexküll. In 1899 these three men published a joint<br>
paper in which they proposed to discard all psychological terms, like sensation,<br>
memory, and learning, and substitute objective terms: reception for sensation, reflex<br>
for fixed movement, antiklise for modifiable movement, and resonance for memory or<br>
any dependence of behavior on past stimulation. Nor was it only the protozoa that<br>
seemed able to spare consciousness. The stereotyped behavior of the social insects, of<br>
the ants and bees, suggested that they might be robots (Boring, 1959, p. 625).''
 
<nowiki>*</nowiki>Närvisüsteemi voolusängid (drainage). Uute voolusängide kujunemise teooria pakkus välja Uexküll, mis funktsionaalse ringi (tagasiside) põhimõttel loob uusi voolusänge närvivõrgus ja on seega aluseks õppimisele.
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